CFA CFA Level 2 LIFO and Cash flow

# LIFO and Cash flow

• Author
Posts
• 268

In periods of rising prices and stable or increasing inventory quantities, a company using LIFO rather than FIFO will report COGS and cash flows which are, respectively:

The reason given is: LIFO results in higher cash flow because with lower reported income, income tax will be lower.

Problem is I know the answer instinctively unfortunately I still don’t understand why the cash flow will be higher, I just can’t visual it in my head.

• vincentt
Participant
• CFA Level 3
13

A simple example to illustrate that:

For example, in your inventory there are 2 items (each cost \$50 and \$100).

You sold 1 item @ \$200 with tax 30%.

With FIFO, your COGS will be \$50 and the amount get taxed will be \$45.
Cash Outflow = -\$150 (for the goods)
Taxed = -\$45
Cash Inflow = +\$200
Total = \$5

With LIFO, your COGS will be \$100 and the amount you’ll get taxed will be \$30.
Cash Outflow = -\$150
Taxed = -\$30
Cash Inflow = +\$200
Total = \$20

Hence, LIFO has higher COGS (\$100) and higher cashflow (\$20)

Hope that helps ðŸ˜‰

• Marina
Participant
• Undecided
0

Can you explain what is 150 as outflow?

• Zee Tan
Keymaster
• CFA Charterholder
1

I’m not sure if the outflow example is right, although Vincent is right in showing tax paid is lower under LIFO in rising prices, since the most recent (and more expensive) inventory is accounted for in COGS, driving your profit margin (and therefore tax) down.

• BAHBINTON
Participant
• CFA Level 1
5

Brilliant explanation. Thank you!!!

• 3

Yes @diya. My bad on terrible explanation. Best illustrated through an example.

Say using LIFO on COGS you get \$1,000 earnings before tax.
And FIFO COGS you get \$1,500 earnings before tax (higher than LIFO method).

If tax rate is 20% on earnings, the cash outflow (due to tax) on the LIFO COGS scenario is \$200, whereas for FIFO COGS it’s \$300.

• 2

Hi @diya, I’m assuming you get the higher COGS bit which results in lower earnings before tax. As cash outflow due to tax is less in monetary \$ terms (since it’s usually a % on profit), I suppose that’s where the cashflow would be higher than in a FIFO case.

• 0

I’ll take a stab. It may not be right, just how I understand it.

If rising prices, new goods have a higher price.
If stable or increasing inventory, this means the goods sold are the new goods, so they’re more expensive than the average inventory.

So COGS is higher…
…hence net income is lower…
…hence you get taxed less…
…which results in a higher cash flow.

Cash flow isn’t really affected by COGS or net income since it’s all paid for already – the only way it does get affected is the amount of tax you have to pay.

• 0

Hi @diya, I’m assuming you get the higher COGS bit which results in lower earnings before tax. As cash outflow due to tax is less in monetary \$ terms (since it’s usually a % on profit), I suppose that’s where the cashflow would be higher than in a FIFO case.

So cash flow is higher because as a % there is smaller outflow due to the lower tax expense?